Wastewater Treatment Trends in Less-Developed & Developing Countries Around the World

As wastewater generation is a global phenomenon, it is necessary that effective and comprehensive wastewater treatment strategies must be in place in all countries to deal with this problem. It is incredible to note that there are some amazing innovations and applications availed by developing as well as less-developed countries to convert and use wastewater as a resource. At the same time, there is an urgent need for better wastewater treatment solutions in underdeveloped countries. 

Wastewater is being dumped into freshwater resources and it is seeping into groundwater as well. Thus every life form starting from humans to plants to animals are affected due to water pollution, disturbing the entire ecosystem irrevocably. 

Situation in Less-Developed Countries 

The United Nation’s World Water Development Report 2017 says that only 38 per cent wastewater is treated in upper-middle-income countries whereas, in lower-middle-income countries, it goes down to 28 per cent. On further investigation and research it was found that only 8 per cent wastewater is treated in low-income countries. 

There are a plethora of factors which are pushing back multiple countries like Africa in the wastewater treatment field. Poor infrastructure, lack of clarity on how to handle, collect and treat wastewater and non-existence of policy-driven initiatives and reforms. The subsequent result is the pollution of water, outbreak of diseases like cholera and loss of lives every year. Other countries like Samoa, Cambodia, Bhutan, Nepal etc have the lowest level of wastewater treatment practises. Vietnam, Bangladesh and Nepal in the Asia-pacific region have improved the tally. 

As per estimates, 36 per cent of the world population is living in areas where water is scarce. The World Bank Water Global Practice has been stressing on the need for converting wastewater into a resource. As wastewater generation due to the urban population, innumerable industries, growing commercial spaces and countless other human activities has increased, it is time to turn it into a solution rather than finding a solution for the problem, say many experts. More on that later.

Situation in Developing Countries

According to the same report, the situation in Arab countries has slightly improved. A high percentage of wastewater is now treated in wastewater treatment plants and a significant amount is converted to a usable form for irrigation purposes and groundwater recharge. Challenges remain as new technologies are yet to be embraced. In Eastern Europe, a large amount of wastewater is still released in the environment without any treatment. 

As far as other developing countries in the world, the technologies and solutions for wastewater treatment is quite expensive and demands a high amount of energy. Also, in countries like India, the wastewater treatment plants are too old to function properly and there haven’t been many plants which are in development. The growing urban population has been putting a lot of stress on the existing ones thus causing malfunction and leakage. 

Other studies have shown that domestic households contain the most dangerous form of wastewater as it contains all sorts of chemicals and pathogens also survive in the drainage lines. Similarly, the industries are growing in number in developing countries which generate pollution with toxic and harmful substances like heavy metals, volatile compounds and another metalloid. 

Lack of solutions which can cover both the urban as well as rural areas in developing countries is another area of concern. Furthermore, in developing countries with proper wastewater treatment plants, another issue like that of sludge treatment exists and the disposal of sludge is a matter which needs to be settled. Most of these countries are looking for sustainable solutions. Unless and until the present is not secured, the future looks quite disturbing. 

With latest and advanced technology there are new forms of contaminants which are found after screening the wastewater plant effluent released into the environment. In keeping with this, more research and study needs to be carried out as simple disinfection through chlorination is not enough in developing countries. 

Innovative Wastewater Treatment Solutions 

Take for instance the country Namibia a country situated in the Southern part of Africa. A decade ago, the country, the authorities and common people realized that water is becoming scarce. The drinking water available was low and with deserts all around finding water was a difficult task. Compelled by this requirement they turned into wastewater treatment. The wastewater began to be treated in large plants and latest and innovative solutions were used to convert them into drinking water. 

Initially, there was a concern regarding health drinking wastewater converted into drinkable water. But after so many many years, it is no-issue and people remain healthy and happy. 

Other Trending Solutions

While there are many technologies and tools which are transforming the solutions sphere of treating wastewater, a simple and effective solution is required. Especially in developing and less-developed countries, they can not afford costly solutions to treat wastewater. The revamping of plant infrastructure, bioreactors and primary, secondary and tertiary processes must be a difficult task to execute. Therefore, the focus must be given to sustainable wastewater treatment solutions. 

There are multiple chemical-based products and solutions as well. These must be avoided as again they are harmful to human health. Therefore, the effluent must be pure enough to be consumed by humans confidently. So, what solutions are possible which can encapsulate all these principles? 

There are biological wastewater treatment solutions which can be used to act aggressively on the organic waste in the wastewater. As all the solid waste and other such material are removed in the physical treatment stage, microbes or microorganisms can be used to treat the rest of the waste easily. Organica Biotech is one of the leading companies with a sustainable range of products. Their wastewater treatment products are effective in degrading all kinds of organic waste and converting them into event carbon dioxide and water which are sources of energy. This can transform the way wastewater is treated in less-developed as well as developing countries. The fact that it is natural, eco-friendly and effective makes it one of the best solutions in the market. For more details, visit www.organicabiotech.com.